RBE 595: Space and Planetary Robotics Lecture 1

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RBE 595 Space and PlanetaryProfessor Marko B PopovicA term 2019 Robotics in space and planetaryenvironments so far .
In the context of spaceflight a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit Satellitesare usually semi independent computer controlled systems Robots Satellite subsystems attend manytasks such as power generation thermal control telemetry attitude A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit Earth but instead explores further into outerspace A space probe may approach the Moon travel through interplanetary space flyby orbit or land on.
other planetary bodies or enter interstellar space Robotic manipulator arms attached to spacecraft or space station to deploy maneuver and capture payloadsand assist with docking procedures They include Canadarm 1 on now decommissioned Space Shuttleorbiters Canadarm 2 on ISS Dextre 2 arm robot on ISS JEMRMS on ISS A rover or sometimes planetary rover is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a.
planet or other celestial body Some rovers have been designed to transport members of a human spaceflightcrew others have been partially or fully autonomous robots Includes Moon rovers Lunokhod 1 and 2 ApolloLunar Roving Vehicle Yutu and Yutu 2 and Mars rovers Sojourner Opportunity Spirit and Curiosity Class of various robot assistants on ISS including Robonaut 1 and 2 Sphere Astrobee Fedor Robonaut a joint DARPA NASA project.
designed to create a humanoid robot A few robot images The Curiosity landed on Mars surface August 6 2012 This was thelargest rover NASA has put on Mars being twice as long and fivewhich can function as an equivalent to times as heavy as its processors The Curiosity took many designhumans during the 1970s and exploration elements from the previous generation of Mars rovers such as sixThe large goal of the Robonaut project is to wheel drive rocker bogie suspension and cameras mounted to the.
build a robot with dexterity that exceeds Dextre is a two armed robot mast of the rover to help the mission s team direct the rover that of a suited astronaut or telemanipulator which is part of However unlike the previous generation the Curiosity contains anthe Mobile Servicing System on entire inboard laboratory for analyzing the soil and rocks on Mars the International Space Station ISS It NASA engineered the Curiosity to be capable of rolling overreplaces some activities otherwise obstacles up to 65 centimeters high and traverse up to about 200.
requiring spacewalks It was launched meters per day on Martian terrain Curiosity got its electrical powerMarch 11 2008 on mission STS 123 from a Radioisotope thermoelectric generator Robonaut Dextre on ISS Curiosity rover Robotics in space and planetaryenvironments in the near future .
It appears a lot of focus will be on the Moon https www nasa gov specials mo... So one may anticipate new lunar based robots Robots that can operate individually or in groups maybe more intelligently than in traditional swarms Robots that are fast and that are capable to efficiently robustly transverse lunar terrain excavate work.
with regolith rocks polar ice analyze and process local resources Robots that will provide full telepresence for us on the Moon and perhaps build a Lunar base build andrepair themselves and work along humans when we finally arrive to the Moon One should also anticipate a new generation of robots that can work with space debris those specializedfor asteroids meteors and comets as well as new space stations Moon and Earth orbits builders .
One should also expect more space military robots Cosmic Journeys by National Geographic Magazinehttp visualoop com infographic... Some quick facts about the SolarOur solar system consists of the sun eight planets moons many dwarf planets or plutoids an.
asteroid belt comets meteors and others The sun is the center of our solar system the planets their moons a belt of asteroids comets and other rocks and gas orbit the sun The eight planets that orbit the sun are in order from the sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Another large body is Pluto now classified as a dwarf planet orplutoid A belt of asteroids minor planets made of rock and metal lies between Mars and Jupiter .
These objects all orbit the sun in roughly circular orbits that lie in the same plane the ecliptic Pluto is an exception it has an elliptical orbit tilted over 17 from the ecliptic Size mattersThe largest planet is Jupiter It is followed by Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth Venus Mars Mercury andfinally tiny Pluto the largest of the dwarf planets Jupiter is so big that all the other planets could fit inside it .
Inner vs OuterThe inner planets those planets that orbit close to the sun are quite different from the outerplanets those planets that orbit far from the sun The inner planets are Mercury Venus Earth and Mars They are relatively small composed mostly of rock and have few or no moons .
The outer planets include Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune and Pluto a dwarf planet They are mostly huge mostly gaseous ringed and have many moons again the exceptionis Pluto the dwarf planet which is small rocky and has four moons Temperature matters too Generally the farther from the Sun the cooler the planet Differences occur when the greenhouse.
effect warms a planet like Venus surrounded by a thick atmosphere Magnetic fields Density and MassThe outer gaseous planets are much less Jupiter is by far the most massive planet dense than the inner rocky planets Saturn trails it Uranus Neptune Earth .
The Earth is the densest planet Saturn is the Venus Mars and Pluto are orders ofleast dense planet it would float on water magnitude less massive Surface gravitational accelerationThe planet with the strongest gravitational attraction at its surface is Jupiter Although Saturn Uranus andNeptune are also very massive planets their gravitational forces are about the same as Earth This is.
because the gravitational force a planet exerts upon an object at the planet s surface is proportional to itsmass and to the inverse of the planet s radius squared Surface gravitational accelerationGravitational acceleration can be obtained from Newton s law of gravity aswith R radius of the planet M mass of the planet and average density of the planet .
Hence by substitution of density and radius for Earth with universal gravitational constantG 6 67408 10 11 m3 kg 1 s 2This pure gravitational pull is affected by Earth daily rotations by amountWith being latitude For Daily rotations.
A day is the length of time that it takes a planet to rotate on itsaxis 360 A day on Earth takes almost 24 hours The planet with the longest day is Venus a day on Venus takes243 Earth days A day on Venus is longer than its year a yearon Venus takes only 224 7 Earth days .
The planet with the shortest day is Jupiter a day on Jupiteronly takes 9 8 Earth hours When you observe Jupiter fromEarth you can see some of its features change And period of revolution Orbital speed.
As the planets orbit the Sun they travel at different speeds Each planet speeds up when it is nearer the Sunand travels more slowly when it is far from the Sun this is Kepler s Second Law of Planetary Motion Revolution vs distance Period ofDistance from the Sun.
Revolution Diameter TemperaturePlanet or Dwarf Astronomical Units Period of Rotation Mass Apparent size Number ofAround the Sun miles KPlanet miles 1 planetary day kg from Earth Moons 1 planetary km Range or Average .
0 39 AU 36 million miles 3 031 miles 100 700 KMercury 87 96 Earth days 58 7 Earth days 3 3 x 1023 5 13 arc seconds 057 9 million km 4 878 km mean 452 K224 68 Earth 7 521 milesVenus 67 2 million miles 243 Earth days 4 87 x 1024 10 64 arc seconds 726 K 0.
days 12 104 km108 2 million km7 926 milesEarth 93 million miles 365 26 days 24 hours 5 98 x 1024 Not Applicable 260 310 K 1149 6 million km.
686 98 Earth 24 6 Earth hours 4 222 milesMars 141 6 million miles 6 42 x 1023 4 25 arc seconds 150 310 K 2days 1 026 Earth days 6 787 km227 9 million km5 203 AU 67 18 named.
11 862 Earth 88 729 miles 120 KJupiter 483 6 million miles 9 84 Earth hours 1 90 x 1027 31 48 arc seconds plus manyyears 142 796 km cloud tops 778 3 million km smaller ones 29 456 Earth 74 600 miles 15 21 arc seconds.
Saturn 886 7 million miles 10 2 Earth hours 5 69 x 1026 88 K 62 30 unnamed years 120 660 km excluding rings1 427 0 million km32 600 milesUranus 1 784 0 million miles 84 07 Earth years 17 9 Earth hours 8 68 x 1025 3 4 arc seconds 59 K 27 6 unnamed .
2 871 0 million km164 81 Earth 30 200 milesNeptune 2 794 4 million miles 19 1 Earth hours 1 02 x 1026 2 5 arc seconds 48 K 13years 48 600 km4 497 1 million km.
Pluto a dwarf 1 413 miles3 674 5 million miles 247 7 years 6 39 Earth days 1 29 x 1022 0 04 arc seconds 37 K 4planet 2 274 km5 913 million km Escape velocity.
Escape velocity is related to necessary kinetic energy of ballistic object to leave gravitational pull andin the context of Earth can be expressed asIt is also referred to as second cosmic speed Location with respect to Ve km s 9 Location with respect to Ve km s 9 on the Sun the Sun s gravity 617 5.
on Mercury Mercury s gravity 4 3 10 230 at Mercury the Sun s gravity 67 7on Venus Venus s gravity 10 3 at Venus the Sun s gravity 49 5on Earth Earth s gravity 11 2 10 200 at the Earth Moon the Sun s gravity 42 1on the Moon the Moon s gravity 2 4 at the Moon the Earth s gravity 1 4on Mars Mars gravity 5 0 10 234 at Mars the Sun s gravity 34 1.
on Ceres Ceres s gravity 0 51on Jupiter Jupiter s gravity 59 6 10 236 at Jupiter the Sun s gravity 18 5on Io Io s gravity 2 558on Europa Europa s gravity 2 025on Ganymede Ganymede s gravity 2 741.
on Callisto Callisto s gravity 2 440on Saturn Saturn s gravity 35 6 10 238 at Saturn the Sun s gravity 13 6on Titan Titan s gravity 2 639on Uranus Uranus gravity 21 3 10 240 at Uranus the Sun s gravity 9 6on Neptune Neptune s gravity 23 8 10 240 at Neptune the Sun s gravity 7 7.
on Triton Triton s gravity 1 455on Pluto Pluto s gravity 1 2at Solar Systemthe Milky Way s gravity 492 594 11 12 galactic radius.
on the event horizon a black hole s gravityspeed of light Kepler s LawsIn the early 1600s Johannes Kepler proposed three laws of planetary motion Kepler was able tosummarize the carefully collected data of his mentor Tycho Brahe with three statements that described.
the motion of planets in a sun centered solar system Kepler s efforts to explain the underlying reasonsfor such motions are no longer accepted nonetheless the actual laws themselves are still considered anaccurate description of the motion of any planet and any satellite Kepler s three laws of planetary motion can be described as follows The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape with the center of the sun being located at.
one focus The Law of Ellipses An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equalareas in equal intervals of time The Law of Equal Areas The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of theiraverage distances from the sun The Law of Harmonies .
The Law of EllipsesKepler s first law sometimes referred to as the law of ellipses explains thatplanets are orbiting the sun in a path described as an ellipse An ellipse can easilybe constructed using a pencil two tacks a string a sheet of paper and a piece ofcardboard Tack the sheet of paper to the cardboard using the two tacks Then tie.
the string into a loop and wrap the loop around the two tacks Take your penciland pull the string until the pencil and two tacks make a triangle see diagram atthe right Then begin to trace out a path with the pencil keeping the stringwrapped tightly around the tacks The resulting shape will be an ellipse An ellipseis a special curve in which the sum of the distances from every point on the curve.
to two other points is a constant The two other points represented here by thetack locations are known as the foci of the ellipse The closer together that thesepoints are the more closely that the ellipse resembles the shape of a circle In fact a circle is the special case of an ellipse in which the two foci are at the samelocation Kepler s first law is rather simple all planets orbit the sun in a path that.
resembles an ellipse with the sun being located at one of the foci of that ellipse The Law of Equal AreasKepler s second law sometimes referred to as the law of equal areas describes the speed at which any given planet will move while orbitingthe sun The speed at which any planet moves through space is.
constantly changing A planet moves fastest when it is closest to the sunThe eight planets that orbit the sun are (in order from the sun): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Another large body is Pluto, now classified as a dwarf planet or plutoid. A belt of asteroids (minor planets made of rock and metal) lies between Mars and Jupiter.

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