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Theresienstadt Terezin Prison and work camp run by Nazis in Years of Operation Theresienstadt was opened on November 24 .1941 and it remained in operation until May 9 During these years roughly 140 000 Jewstransferred to and through Theresienstadt Of those 140 000 nearly 90 000 were transportedto camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka where.they were killed and nearly 33 000 died ofvarious causes at the camp Footer Text 11 21 2020 2 Location and History The camp was set up in an old fort built by Austrian.emperor Joseph II in the 1780 s A ghetto was established in the main fort and a prisoncamp was set up in what is known as the small fortress Theresienstadt is located the current country of TheCzech Republic and it is northwest of Prague .Footer Text 11 21 2020 3 Footer Text 11 21 2020 4 Theresienstadt s The camp was set up to be both a labor camp and a ghetto Theresienstadt housed and served as a transit station primarily for.Czech Jews but it also had another purspose Jews form Austria Germany Denmark and Eastern Europe whowere deemed culturally significant were kept at Theresienstadt As a result Theresienstadt had a rare cultural environment thatwas absent in other places but the Nazis had a reason for allowing. The Jews were treated in much the same manner as they were atother camps They were starved beaten made to do inhumanethings and they were even executed Theresienstadt was somewhat of a unique camp It was a camp atthe same time it was a ghetto Thus while prisoners were treated.like they were in the camps they were also sometimes left to theirown devices and their own governance Footer Text 11 21 2020 5 OperationEmbellishment. Theresienstadt is most infamous for this operation In1944 The international Red Cross and the Danish RedCross had heard reports of extermination camps Upon hearing that the Red Cross wanted to tour a camp the Nazis sent them to Theresienstadt Theresienstadt.housed the most cultured prisoners of all theconcentration camps so the Nazis chose this camp to foolthe Red Cross The Nazis had prisoners build fake structures in the mainfortress to make it look like the Jews had their own town in.the ghetto The Nazis also deported mass numbers ofprisoners right before the Red Cross arrived to make itlook like they were keeping the Jews in good conditions The representatives from the Red Cross were led throughthe ghetto by a red line on a map which avoided the bad.parts and no prisoner would answer a question directlyto the Red Cross They would only answer to a Nazi After the Red Cross left unbelievably satisfied the Nazisdeported all the prisoners who had helped build the fakebuildings to Auschwitz where they were gassed.immediately upon arrival Footer Text 11 21 2020 6 Survivor s Story Jennifer Rosenberg was 17 when she was arrestedand deported along with her family to.Theresienstadt Her father and brother wereimmediately deported to Auschwitz where theywere Jennifer says of life in the camp My life inthe camp was one of desperation hard work hunger disease and being eaten alive by.vermin Instead of plush toys small childrenplayed with live rats Footer Text 11 21 2020 7 Typical Day A typical day according to Rosenberg A typical day I d wake up then living with 6000.other women on the unfinished unheatable vermin infested attic of one of the largebarracks for women not counting additional thousands in the rooms downstairs from thenoise and commotion of all the women around me trying to get ready for work I would godownstairs and stand in line at the latrine or in front of one of the 6 or 8 toilet fixtures twoor three such set ups for many many thousands of women There usually was no water.for flushing or for washing No separating privacy affording stalls No toilet paper Everybody cussing and telling us to hurry up Then if there was time I would rush to thefood distribution center to fetch our assigned cup of imitation coffee made from grain andchestnuts for my mother and me No other food was provided If I had any bread left usually I didn t I d soak a dry slice of bread in this brew . Then I d rush to report for work and march off to wherever our Hundertschaft wasassigned to that day In the evening we would again line up for food Three times a weekthis evening meal consisted of the same coffee with nothing else to accompany it Othertimes it was a ladle of barley Or some undefinable tasteless unflavored soup in whichswam if I was fortunate a chunk of unpeeled dirty potato or a bit of carrot or a slice of.turnip If I was extremely lucky and or if I knew the kitchen personnel could persuadethem to scoop my ladle from the bottom of the container even two or all three of theabove That was heaven for an evening We had an hour to fetch food run errands visitfamily or friends If there was water we d try to find some to drink or even to wash Again standing in line for the toilet At 8 PM we had to turn lights out .Footer Text 11 21 2020 8 End of the War At the end of the War things were almost worse There were 18 000 recentlyarrived deathmarch victims from other camps in our midst badly in need of helpand care These people were even worse off than we having been brought on.foot and some by cattle car to our camp most often without food or water One evening I helped unload one of these cars there were more dead thanalive people on board And the few living were very ill Our housing and foodsupply situation was inadequate to the task We did not have nurses or caregivers There was an outbreak of typhus . After the war I returned to my home town in hopes that my father and brothermight have survived They hadn t My father brother grandfathers were killed also many uncles aunts cousins friends neighbors my grandmother electedsuicide rather than face deportation Interesting vignette during one scholarlyconference in this country a couple of years ago a very knowledgeable rabbi.and Holocaust scholar made a categorical statement Jews don t commitsuicide Maybe it is against scripture but as a matter of actual fact fully halfthe graves at my home town s Jewish cemetery from 1938 i e Kristallnacht until the end of the WWII are those of suicide victims My Mother survived thecamp but she was never well again and died some years later .Footer Text 11 21 2020 9 After the War From United States Holocaust Museum After againvisiting the camp on April 6 and April 21 1945 theInternational Red Cross took over its administration.on May 2 1945 SS Commandant Rahm and the restof the SS fled on May 5 and 6 Scattered Germanmilitary and SS units continued to fight Soviet forcesin the vicinity of the camp ghetto which became partof the battlefront on May 8 Soviet troops entered the.camp on May 9 and assumed responsibility for itsprisoners the next day By the end of August 1945 most of the former prisoners had left the camp to bereplaced by ethnic Germans arrested by the Czechand Soviet authorities .Footer Text 11 21 2020 10Of those 140,000, nearly 90,000 were transported to camps such as Auschwitz and Treblinka where they were killed, and nearly 33,000 died of various causes at the camp. 10/19/2012. Footer Text. Location and History. The camp was set up in an old fort built by Austrian emperor Joseph II in the 1780â€™s.